Site logo

What is gingivitis? Types, causes and symptoms and effective treatments

Gingivitis is usually caused by the accumulation of bacteria on the teeth and the accumulation of plaque on the teeth. In this disease, the gums become red and puffy and bleed while brushing. Swelling creates a deep void between the teeth and gums that is extremely difficult to clean. If left untreated, gingivitis can lead to periodontitis and tooth loss. Gingivitis is usually treated with good oral hygiene and the proper use of dental floss and mouthwash. Gingivitis has very mild symptoms and sometimes the patient does not notice it, but it must be examined by a dentist.

What is gingivitis?

If the gums are healthy, the color is pink and firm, and bleeding, swelling and redness of the gums are signs of various gum diseases. In the early stages of gum disease (called gingivitis), treatment is much easier. Gingivitis is caused by the accumulation of bacteria in the teeth and gums. If oral hygiene is not properly maintained, gum tissue is irritated and disease develops. Gingivitis is sometimes asymptomatic and the patient does not notice it, but if left untreated, it can cause oral disease and serious damage to the jaws and teeth, causing many more problems for the patient.

Causes of gingivitis

Bacteria can cause an infection in the mouth called gingivitis. If gingivitis is not treated, the infection can cause a much more serious condition called periodontitis. According to the American Dental Association, these two diseases are the two most important causes of tooth loss in adults. Dental infections put your health at great risk and can be very costly due to the high cost of dental treatment. Therefore, pay attention to the symptoms of the disease and seek timely treatment. The following are the causes of gingivitis:

Plaque formation

If oral hygiene is not observed, bacteria can cause plaque on the teeth. These plaques can cause gingivitis.

Weak immune system

In some special cases, based on the underlying disease, the body’s immune system is weakened and the person develops gum disease. Some of these diseases, such as diabetes and HIV, reduce a person’s ability to fight bacteria and make them more prone to gingivitis.

Tobacco and alcohol consumption

Excessive alcohol consumption as well as smoking make a person susceptible to gingivitis.

Local factors

Changing the structure of the teeth and performing dental services can increase a person’s susceptibility to gingivitis.

Hormone changes

Puberty, menopause and pregnancy can increase the sensitivity of the gums and cause gingivitis.


Some medications reduce saliva in the mouth and affect oral health. The anticonvulsant Dilantin causes abnormal growth of gum tissue.


The risk of gingivitis increases with age.

Lack of attention to proper diet

To maintain oral health, having a proper diet and paying attention to the amount of minerals and vitamins in the body is very effective.


If the parents have gingivitis, it is possible that the type of bacteria is also transmitted to the fetus and the risk of gingivitis increases.

Symptoms of gingivitis

Some people with gingivitis do not even know they have the disease because it has no specific symptoms and sometimes occurs without symptoms. However, the following are some of the symptoms of this disease:

Loose teeth

Loose teeth can be a sign of bone disease around the teeth. If the teeth are loose, you should go to the dental clinic immediately.

Swollen, red and tender gums

In most cases, red gums indicate the presence of gingivitis.

Bad breath

Oral and dental diseases, especially gum infections, cause severe bad breath.

Feeling pain when chewing food

Oral infections can cause excruciating pain when eating.

The presence of plaque between the teeth and gums

Accumulation of plaque and plaque between the teeth and gums provides the basis for bacterial activity that causes infection.

Gingival softening

Healthy gums are hard, so if the gums become soft, it is a sign of infection.

Bleeding gums

Bleeding gums are an important sign of disease and infections in the mouth. If you experience bleeding gums on your own or while eating, you should see a dentist right away.

Creating malocclusion

If there is no symmetry between the upper and lower teeth, the person has malocclusion. This asymmetry can set the stage for the activity of oral bacteria and cause infection.

Diagnosis of gingivitis

A specialist dentist can diagnose and treat gingivitis by examination, medical history, radiographs, and periodontal examinations. Sometimes the help of a periodontist is needed for treatment. Sometimes some people need a blood test and a tissue sample to diagnose the disease. The dentist can diagnose gingivitis by measuring the depth of the groove between the teeth and gums. Thus, if these grooves are deeper than 4 mm, it is a sign of gum disease. Another way to diagnose this condition is to use X-rays so that the dentist can see deeper grooves.

Types of gingivitis

Gingivitis falls into two general categories, which we will examine below:

Inflammation of the gums caused by dental plaque

As a result of plaque and plaque on the teeth, which is caused due to poor oral hygiene, medications or malnutrition.

Inflammation caused by non-plaque agents

Bacteria, viruses or fungi can cause this lesion. It is also possible due to genetic factors, wounds, systemic disorders. It is interesting to know that sometimes there is no reason behind this complication.

Gingivitis treatment methods

There are several ways to treat gingivitis, which we will discuss below:

Cleaning teeth

Proper and regular oral hygiene is very important. Cleaning plaque on your teeth with a toothbrush and floss can cure gingivitis in the early stages.


Some medications are effective in treating gingivitis, such as antibacterial mouthwash containing chlorhexidine and oral antibiotics.


When the disease has progressed and the damage to the jaw and teeth is excessive and the dentist can no longer treat the disease with the help of medicine and cleaning the teeth, then the dentist uses surgery to treat the disease. This type of surgery is known as gingival flap surgery. In this surgery, the dentist removes part of the gums to remove the plaque. He then sutures the gums in place.

Complications of gingivitis

Although gingivitis is not a dangerous disease at first and can be treated with good oral hygiene, but if it progresses and if not treated early, it will lead to complications that include:

Abscesses and infections in the jawbone or gums

If decayed teeth are not taken care of and no action is taken to treat them, then the infection will reach the root of the tooth and a purulent mass will form around it. If the abscess is ignored, the infection can spread to the entire head and neck area.


Periodontitis means inflammation of the tissues around the teeth and is actually a serious gum infection. This disease causes the destruction of the tissues around the teeth. Bacteria in the mouth can cause inflammation through their activities. If periodontitis is not treated, problems such as heart attack and tooth loss can occur.

Methods of preventing gingivitis

Most gum disease is small and painless at first, but if left untreated, it can lead to serious complications and disease. To prevent gingivitis, it is better to observe the following factors.

  • Take oral hygiene seriously. Brush at least twice a day and floss to remove plaque and plaque from your teeth.
  • Avoid smoking and alcohol, as they increase the risk of gum disease.
  • Using mouthwash is very effective. Salt water mouthwash, hydrogen peroxide mouthwash and black tea compress are very effective in reducing swelling and gum discomfort. Of course, be careful not to overdo it so as not to damage your enamel.
  • Try to go to the dentist’s office every once in a while to have your teeth checked.
  • If you have a tooth infection, be sure to treat it. This infection can cause abscesses, which can eventually lead to periodontitis.
  • Try to reduce your sugar intake.
  • If you feel your gums are swollen or have bad breath, be sure to go to the dentist. Because this gum disease does not have pain and problems at first, but with its progression, it leads to bad complications and causes dangerous diseases.
  • Do not take aspirin arbitrarily to prevent gum disease, as there is a possibility of gingival burns.
  • Vitamin C is very effective in healing wounds and bleeding gums.


  • No comments yet.
  • Add a comment