Jaw abnormalities in many cases lead to disturbances in chewing and digestion of food. In addition, it leads to problems for the beauty of the patient’s face, teeth health and even difficulty in pronouncing words. Types of jaw abnormalities are disorders that affect one or both jaws, such as jaw size, jaw location, jaw rotation type, bilateral symmetry of the jaw and its overall shape in the face and jaw shape. Jaw abnormalities or malocclusions are divided into three classes. Absence of malocclusion is attributed to malocclusion. If the upper jaw is forward and the lower jaw is further back, it is called a class two jaw anomaly, and if the upper jaw is further back and the lower jaw is ahead of the upper jaw, it is called a class three jaw anomaly. Also, deviation of the jaw from the midline of the face and problems in the temporomandibular joint are also considered as jaw abnormalities.
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Jaw deformity can be primary or secondary. Most of the jaw problems are hereditary. Some jaw abnormalities occur in the fetus and before birth, which are called hereditary jaw abnormalities. Some of them appear during life and at different age groups, which are called acquired jaw abnormalities. Hereditary causes of jaw deformity can be due to genetic problems, intrauterine injuries, etc.
But in some cases, the cause of all kinds of jaw abnormalities can be due to diseases, heredity, damage or functional disorders. For example, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis can manifest itself before the age of 16 with manifestations of jaw abnormalities.
The orthodontic specialist first takes a proper history from the patient. When did the patient’s problem start and whether he has a chewing problem or not. Also, various cases are checked, whether the patient can take food with his front teeth? Do you have trouble speaking? Has this problem created difficulties for the patient and affected his self-confidence? Do you have problems in your jaw joint, such as pain in the joint, making a sound when the joint moves, or disproportionate movements?
The orthodontist examines the general appearance of the patient’s face. Then the maxillary examination, the soft tissue around the jaw and the dental health and the right alignment of the teeth and the maxilla are checked. The orthodontist pays attention to all the things mentioned above in the examination of the jaws; That is, examining the jaw size, location, rotation, shape and symmetry of the jaw joints.
Only the history and examination will not help the dentist for a more detailed examination of the jaw deformity. Rather, diagnostic tests such as imaging, cephalometric radiography, and dental model examination should also be used.
Class two or class three jaw deformities that require orthodontic treatment or jaw surgery are as follows:
It is possible that the patient is suffering from various types of jaw deformities such as Class III jaw deformity and needs jaw surgery in addition to orthodontics. Facial orthodontics is performed with a removable orthodontic device and orthodontics and straightening the teeth with a fixed orthodontic device.
In cases where the patient needs jaw surgery, the orthodontic specialist designs and installs a suitable orthodontic device for the patient before the jaw surgery. On average, brackets are placed on your teeth for a year to a year and a half to correct the position of your teeth and their alignment. After the surgery and about 6 months after the jaw surgery, the orthodontist removes the corresponding orthodontic brackets. In general, this orthodontic treatment can last about 2 years.
Jaw correction surgery or orthognathic surgery is performed by a maxillofacial surgeon to correct partial or severe jaw, dental, and skeletal abnormalities, including misalignment of the jaw and teeth.