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Specialized dental terms related to oral and dental treatment

In this article, we get to know the common terms in dentistry. Knowing these terms can help you in the dental process. But you should not be satisfied with knowing this information and you should definitely seek advice from a dentist in Canada about your dental problem.


A dental implant is a screw that is inserted into the jaw by a specialist as a tooth root.


Amalgam is an ideal filling material in dentistry and is composed of 50% mercury, 34.5% silver, 9% tin, 6% copper, and 0.5% zinc. Amalgam is an alloy whose two main metals are mercury and silver, and other elements such as tin and copper have been added to this composition to create some properties. Amalgam exists in two parts, powder, and liquid, before being combined to form an alloy.


A dental implant is made of two main components. One is a fixture and the other is an abutment. First, instead of the missing tooth, a fixture is placed inside your jawbone, and then an abutment with a built-in cover will be placed on top of it.


Dental materials (white restorative materials) are used in dentistry for crown restoration or bonding (tooth-colored restoration) and are made of various compounds such as resin and quartz particles. Connecting composite materials to teeth is called “bonding”.

At first, composites were only used for front teeth to match the color of the teeth, but now different types of composites are available for all dental areas, including types for posterior teeth.

Composites are available in two forms: self-hardening or self-curing, or with light-curing or light curing. Types of self-cure are used less nowadays and light cures are used more due to their strength and durability.


With the passage of time and age, the teeth usually change color. This color change is due to the change in the minerals of enamel and ivory, in other words, the cohesion of enamel gradually decreases and loses its transparency. Bleaching is a process during which, by using chemical oxidizing substances, natural teeth that have changed color become white (during this process, the color of the teeth becomes lighter than the original state). Tooth type is one of the determining factors in the amount of tooth whitening. Based on whether teeth whitening is done in the office or at home, it is called Home Bleach and Office Bleach, and their methods are also different.


Etching means using an acid gel to create a microscopically hard surface on tooth enamel or dentin to bond it with resins.


FRC is a cost-effective way to replace missing teeth in which fiber-reinforced composites, fiber-reinforced polymers, and composites are used instead of metal. The fiber frame is attached to the natural tooth with adhesive so that the bond between the composite and tooth enamel is the strongest bond possible in the mouth.


An overdenture is a type of denture that is placed in the mouth on several bases. These bases can be the patient’s teeth that are denervated and shortened to fit under the tooth, or these bases can be implants that are placed in the patient’s jaw.

Crown reconstruction (Build-up)

Reconstruction of the tooth crown that has been lost due to decay, fracture, or chipping is called with the help of restorative materials or other methods, and usually, after the build-up of the tooth crown, a cover or crown is placed on it. Dental build-up can be done with restorative materials such as amalgam or composite, or with posts and crowns.

Before placing a crown (cover) for the tooth crown, it is necessary to create its supporting structure. The part of the crown that is provided to support the veneer, which may be with build-up by restorative materials, in-crown pin, in-canal pin (prefabricated posts), or in-canal post.

Pin build-up is a method in which the crown of the tooth is lost and by placing the pin in the crown or inside the tooth root canal, the shape of the tooth crown is reconstructed with restorative materials.

The artificial structures that replace the lost tooth structure are called restoration. A crown is a restoration that covers the outer surface of the tooth crown or so-called veneer.


A bridge is made to treat toothlessness, in such a way that two teeth or implants connect the two sides of the toothless area like a bridge and thus replace the missing tooth or teeth. The bridge is permanently attached to the teeth, and to make it, it is necessary to shave the teeth. In most of the bridges, the two sides of the joint of the base teeth are covered, and in some of them, the bridge is attached to the teeth on both sides by fins, and in some cases, this bridge only has a base on one side. Bridges are made of porcelain or ceramic bonded to metal and sometimes only ceramic or porcelain materials.


A biopsy is a sampling of living tissue that can be done under a microscope or with chemical methods. Oral diseases are usually diagnosed with a biopsy.


Different materials and techniques are used to anesthetize the oral environment, depending on the type of application the dentist has in mind. Lidocaine is the most commonly used local anesthetic in minor surgery and dentistry.

Local anesthesia

Local anesthesia often includes noradrenaline (norepinephrine) to keep the anesthesia effective longer and prevent excessive bleeding during surgery or tooth extraction. Some people may react badly to local anesthesia, especially if it is injected directly into a vein (there is no accurate way to tell). Local anesthesia works by temporarily blocking nerve signal transmission.

Relative numbness

Partial anesthesia reduces anxiety and pain, but local anesthesia is still needed. In this type of anesthesia, a mixture of dinitrogen monoxide and oxygen gas is used, which is mostly used for pregnant women.

Injection of the anesthetic by blocking the nerve from the root

It is often used to refer to anesthesia of the lower jaw teeth, which involves an injection that numbs half of the lower jaw. The lower jaw, unlike the upper jaw, is much thicker and does not allow the anesthetic to penetrate the bone, so the nerve must be numbed from the back of the mouth, where it enters the jawbone.

Oral sedative

Sedation is like Valium, which is given to the patient in pill form before the treatment, and after taking it, the patient is still fully alert and aware, but less anxious than before.

Intravenous sedative

A type of semi-anesthesia that is used as a sedative but does not make the patient unconscious. Intravenous sedation is used for unpleasant and long-term surgeries or if the patient is afraid. This type of sedative is injected into the hand. A person who is sedated usually has amnesia and does not remember what happened before, during, or after the procedure.


The best mode of radiography is to detect interdental caries and check the presence of bone loss supporting the teeth. To prepare this radiograph, a paper ring with a slight wing (wing) is placed around the film. That’s why the wing is named and finally presents an image of the teeth of two jaws in such an image.

Root Canal Therapy (RTC)

Root canal treatment, root canal treatment, root canal treatment, endo, root canal therapy, root canal, RCT, neurosurgery

Root canal therapy, which is wrongly called denervation, is one of the most important treatments in dentistry. First, the root canal and pulp cavity, which includes nerve tissue, blood vessels, and other cellular tissues, are completely removed and drained, and then they are cleaned, and then, using a small file (endo files), shaping and with solution They are washed, disinfected and then filled with special soft materials such as gutta-percha. After this operation, the tooth dies, and if the tooth becomes infected after this, it must undergo root canal surgery.

Filling (Dental Filling)

Filling is replacing artificial materials (dental materials) instead of tooth enamel tissue, which is the filling of teeth. There are different dental materials for a crown restoration, which are used depending on the type of tooth and the needs of the patient.


Flipper, a temporary mobile prosthesis that is used during the waiting period for the main prosthesis to be prepared. Sometimes, instead of a bridge or an implant, they use a flipper for a single missing tooth permanently.

Inlay and Onlay

Inlay and inlay are intermediate between tooth filling and veneer. These are used in cases where there is not enough tooth structure to support the filling and at the same time the tooth is not severely damaged. The material of inlay and inlay is gold, composite, resin, or ceramic. The life of these restorations is relatively long if taken care of and they are made directly or indirectly.

The direct form is done in the office and is done using composite and resin.

The indirect form is made in the laboratory and can be made of gold or ceramic.

Retrograde root filling

A retrograde root filling is used when natural access to the root canal system is obstructed by posts. This method consists of a semi-surgery and removing the tip of the tooth root, cleaning, and closing it.


They are usually prefabricated or post-cast. These posts are inserted into the filled root canals of the dead tooth to support the crown or bridge. Recently, non-metallic posts are also used.


Pins are used when a corner or tip of a tooth is missing. The function of the pins is actually to reinforce the filling material. Pins may cause internal cracking of the tooth and loss of nerve.

Dental protective cap (cover)

A synonym for veneer, which is made of ceramic or gold, or has an internal metal structure (for strength) that is covered with porcelain or porcelain (for beauty). Usually, a cap or cover is used to cover and protect fragile teeth, with extensive fillings or denervated teeth to protecpreserveooth or improve their appearance.

Temporary cover

The temporary veneer is mainly made of plastic and is held in place using temporary cement.


It is the most up-to-date material for dental veneers. The inner part of the veneer is made of zirconium, which is white and fits well and can withstand the possible pressures inside the mouth, and then it is covered with porcelain to obtain the desired beauty.


Ceramics are glass-like restorative materials that can be repaired or milled, or an expert can create and then bake it in a laboratory using powdered ceramic.

Cutting the tip (apex) of the tooth root

Endodontic removal is a semi-surgical procedure in which the infected root tip is removed and the root canal is filled. In general, in the past, only dental amalgam was used, and often from where access to the top of the tooth was due to posts or veneers or where root fillings failed.


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