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Periodontitis (causes, symptoms and treatment)

Periodontitis is a severe form of gum disease that occurs when inflammation of the gums spreads to the area where the teeth are held. You may be wondering what causes periodontitis and where it starts? First, plaque builds up between the teeth and gums and then spreads to the bones under the teeth, causing the gums and loose teeth to swell and bleed.

The dentist can use X-rays to measure periodontal depth to determine the severity of periodontitis. This condition often requires frequent cleaning of the teeth and gums by the dentist in the doctor’s office, sometimes requiring periodontal surgery and antibiotics.

In whom do periodontitis most often occur?

Periodontitis is more common in susceptible groups of patients. There are many conditions and disorders that make some patients more susceptible to periodontitis, including diabetes (especially type 1 diabetes), Down syndrome, low white blood cell counts, and AIDS. Dental periodontitis in AIDS patients is characterized by greater progression and speed. Smoking, vitamin C deficiency, emotional disorders and sometimes obesity are also risk factors for periodontitis. Periodontitis can affect people of any age, even young children. However, some patients may be prone to periodontitis and live for years without developing periodontitis. While another group of patients may develop gingivitis without symptoms of periodontitis and without any background of the disease, this is more common in the age group of 20 to 30 years. Periodontitis is one of the leading causes of tooth loss in adults and the elderly. The gingival bone that holds the teeth in place is eroded by a gum infection. This infection weakens the bones of the teeth and leads to loosening of the teeth. Eventually, the damaged tooth may need to be pulled or fall out on its own.

Cause of periodontitis

Periodontitis is often caused by inflammation of the gums and long-term accumulation of bacterial plaque (a thin layer made up mostly of bacteria) and hardening of the plaque on the teeth and gums. Cavities form between the teeth and gums and extend down between the tooth root and the surrounding bony walls. In these cavities, bacterial plaques accumulate in an oxygen-free environment, creating an environment conducive to the growth of many types of bacteria, especially in immunocompromised patients. Plaque and bacteria cause chronic inflammation that destroys the tissue and bone that supports teeth. After learning about the cause of periodontitis, it is good to know that if this disease is not treated in time, it can lead to tooth bone loss. Therefore, the teeth loosen and the patient may feel pain after a while and the gums may recede. Tooth loss due to periodontitis often begins at age 40. The rate of progression of periodontitis in patients varies, these differences depend on different cases, because the accumulation of bacteria in the teeth of some patients may be higher or because of the underlying disease that a person is prone to the progression of periodontitis and so on. The cause of periodontitis is due to the reaction of the patient’s immune system to dental plaque. Periodontitis can cause destructive activity in the teeth and gums that lasts for months, followed by periods of recovery in which no further damage to the periodontal tissue occurs.

Symptoms of periodontitis

Early signs of periodontitis include tenderness, swelling, bleeding and redness of the gums, as well as bad breath (halitosis). As more tooth bone is lost, the teeth loosen and move, and chewing food becomes a painful process. Periodontitis often causes the front teeth to tilt toward adjacent teeth. Periodontitis usually does not cause any pain at first, unless a serious infection develops, such as a buildup of pus in the periodontium (periodontal abscess).

Treatment of periodontitis

  • Professional cleaning of teeth and gums in a dental clinic
  • Occasionally there may be a need for periodontal surgery or extraction of some infected teeth
  • Antibiotics are sometimes prescribed.
  • If there are factors that increase the risk of developing periodontitis, such as poor oral care, diabetes, or smoking, these risk factors should be treated because they can make gum disease worse.
  • Unlike gingivitis, which usually resolves with better oral care (daily brushing and flossing), periodontitis requires professional treatment by a dentist. People with perfect oral health can only brush 2-3 mm below the gum line.
  • While the dentist can clean the periodontal cavities that reach a depth of 6 to 7 mm using the technique of shaving and cleaning the root surface of the tooth, which in this way completely removes bacterial plaque and Heals the root surfaces of damaged teeth.
For cavities 7 mm or more deep, surgery is often required. A general dentist or periodontist can perform this procedure by making an incision in the gums that enables him to access the inner layer of the gums under the teeth. After knowing the cause of periodontitis, you can treat it.


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