Implantology is a technique that allows you to replace missing natural teeth with dentures by placing dental implants. This integrated and safe exercise, as well as its very long shelf life, is now the first choice for anyone who wants to solve this type of problem. But let’s now go into more detail about implants and their components to see what elements and components are in dental implants that determine their final structure.
First of all, it is good to emphasize that an implantology intervention can be performed thanks to the phenomenon of osteointegration; That is, using the ability of connective bone tissue to regenerate itself and thus stabilize itself around the new implant. This path ensures the stability of the implant over time.
However, this process takes several months. For immediate fixation of fixed teeth, good initial stability must be obtained; That is, make sure the implant is well placed on the bone and does not move from there, even if osteointegration has not yet taken place.
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The main elements of the implant are definitely the screw, which is the real implant, which is scientifically called the fixture, the trans-mucosal abutment, which is the interface between the implant and the prosthesis, and the prosthesis, which can be a complete arch.
The implant post or screw is inserted into the jawbone during a short operation using advanced computer surgery. The actual post looks a bit like a natural tooth root, exactly the way it was designed, so if you look at an implant post, you may find that its end is just like a real conical tooth root.
The length of an implant post can be up to 18 mm, and for example, mini-dental implants have longer posts for greater strength and stability. An ordinary dental implant base is hollow so that the abutment can be screwed onto the base.
The three-piece implant design allows the implant posts to be covered for bone integrity, so it does not necessarily repair immediately with a prosthesis. Instead, the abutment is attached later when the implant dentist is ready to make and place the implant prosthesis.
The range of implant abutments depends on the implant system used to repair the teeth. For example, implant abutments that secure implant crowns and bridges are very different from abutments used to support dentures. An implant abutment used to secure a veneer or bridge is a bit like a small tooth protruding above the gum line.
Abutments used to support dentures are very different, because dentures can have special attachments on the surface of their fitting and are attached to the abutments or abutments can be used to support the rod. The prosthesis is then placed directly on the bar.
An implant prosthesis can be a crown, bridge, or implant-dependent prosthesis. Single-tooth implants repair dental crowns, while multiple implants can repair dental bridges or may be used to support dentures. Crowns and bridges are permanently fixed in place and can only be moved by an implant dentist.
Implant prostheses are removable so they can be removed for regular cleaning and maintenance. While implant prostheses are in the mouth, they are held firmly in place and are much stronger and more stable than conventional prostheses placed on the gums.
Most single-tooth implants are made up of three components, but some are two-piece. These dental implants are made in such a way that the post and abutment of the implant are one unit. The implant prosthesis is placed directly on the implant.
The most common implants usually consist of threaded, tapered, or possibly cylindrical screws that are treated on the surface with acids, sandblasts, lasers, or even plasma sprays for greater roughness and thus better fixation. The maxillary bone due to the friction it creates with the second bone.
On the other hand, the abutment, which is also called the trans mucosal component, because it passes through the entire gingival tissue, can be considered an integral part of the fixture (screw), sometimes fully integrated into the implant.
On the other hand, if the two elements are separate and must be connected to each other (wider structure), then they are connected by a special system that allows hooking, which can be fixed and movable. Be adjustable, so that the structure is modular and easily adapted to the patient’s anatomy. The abutment allows you to compensate for any inclination of the implant, which may be tilted for better fixation.
Overdenters In addition, there are mini-implants, also called mini-screws, which are used to further stabilize removable prostheses through overdenture attachment methods, which provide titanium implants with a rod or spherical head.
We have seen and explained the implants and all their components, as well as the mini-implants. Now let’s see what is the most common use of materials in the manufacture of various parts.
Of course, the superior material in dental implants is titanium metal, which is considered more suitable and better than others; Because it has properties that give it excellent resistance to biological stress and inertia, or the properties that some materials must communicate well and without problems with biological systems. As mentioned earlier, many modern implants have a surface structure designed to increase the bone cohesive capacity of the implant inside the jaw.
Different types of materials are used for the crown: you can rely on ceramic or classic composite materials, which, thanks to continuous improvements, are more resistant than ceramics and have a beautiful quality result.