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Getting to know the anatomy of teeth and their common problems

Adult humans normally have between 30 and 32 teeth. Teeth are responsible for eating and breaking food into pieces. Each of the different types of teeth do a specific job and are used to chew specific foods. In the following, you will get to know more about the different parts of the tooth structure and the most common problems related to it.

Structure and function


The root of the tooth is a part of its structure that is located inside the bone and fixes the tooth in place. The root makes up almost two-thirds of the entire tooth.

The root consists of several parts:

  • Root canal: The root canal is a passage that contains the dental pulp.
  • Cementum: This material is also referred to as dental cement. Cementum has a bone-like structure that is attached to periodontal ligaments.
  • Periodontal ligament: Periodontal ligament is made of connective tissue and collagen fiber. These ligaments include nerves and blood vessels.
  • Nerves and blood vessels: Blood vessels feed the periodontal ligament with nutrients. Nerves also help control the amount of force used when chewing food.
  • Jaw bone: Jaw bone, also called alveolar bone, is a bone that contains dental cavities that accommodate the roots of teeth.


The neck is the structure of the tooth that is located between the crown and the root of the tooth.

The neck has three main parts:

  • Gums: Gums are a fleshy and pink tissue that is attached to the tooth neck and cementum.
  • Pulp: The pulp is the inner part of the tooth. This part is made of tiny blood vessels and nerve tissue.
  • Pulp cavity: The pulp cavity is the space inside the crown of the tooth that contains the pulp.


The crown of the tooth is the part of the tooth tissue that is easily visible in the mouth because it has been removed from the teeth by the gums.

The dental crown consists of three parts:

  • Anatomical crown: the only part of the tooth that we can see.
  • Enamel: Enamel is the outermost layer of your teeth and as the hardest part of your body, it helps protect your teeth from bacteria. In addition, enamel helps to strengthen the body during chewing.
  • Dentin: Dentin is a layer of mineral tissue just below the tooth enamel. This part protects the tooth from heat and cold.

Common conditions, diseases and problems related to teeth

Your teeth perform many functions and activities on a daily basis, which makes them susceptible to all kinds of problems. Some of the most common diseases and problems related to this part of the mouth are:


Dental cavities are small holes that are created on the surface of the teeth due to the activity of bacteria and acidification of the oral environment. If left untreated, these cavities will expand and become deeper until they finally penetrate the dental pulp. Tooth perforation can cause pain and sensitivity to heat and cold. In more severe cases, these holes may lead to the formation of infection or tooth loss, for which filling or denervation of the tooth is one of the treatment solutions.


Pulpitis refers to the inflammation of the dental pulp, which often occurs due to the expansion and deepening of cavities. The main symptoms of pulpitis or pulp inflammation are severe pain and sensitivity in the affected tooth. This situation can eventually lead to infection and abscess formation in the root of the tooth.

Periodontal disease

Periodontal disease is sometimes called gum disease. This disease is actually an infection in the gums. Common symptoms of this problem include:

  • Redness, swelling, bleeding and receding or raised gums
  • This disease is a cause of bad breath.
  • the pain
  • allergy
  • and loose teeth

Smoking, taking certain medications, and poor oral hygiene can increase the risk of gum disease.


Malocclusion refers to the lack of coordination and misalignment of the teeth. This situation can cause crowding or misalignment of teeth, orbit and underbite. Malocclusion is often hereditary, but the following can also cause the condition:

  • thumb sucking
  • Prolonged use of pacifiers or bottles
  • Loss of teeth or teeth not coming out of the gums
  • Or poor quality and inappropriate dental supplies

Fortunately, malocclusion can usually be corrected with orthodontic braces.

Bruxism and teeth grinding

Bruxism is actually the wear and tear caused by teeth grinding, in which the teeth of both upper and lower jaws rub against each other with difficulty and pressure. People with bruxism are often unaware of this. Because many of them only do this while sleeping. Grinding teeth over time, bruxism can put pressure on tooth enamel and lead to damage and even tooth loss. Grinding teeth can also cause tooth, jaw and ear pain. In general, depending on its severity, this can damage your jaw and prevent it from opening and closing properly.


A dental abscess is a purulent structure caused by a bacterial infection. This structure can cause toothache that eventually spreads to your jaw, ear or neck. Other symptoms of an abscess include tooth sensitivity, fever, swelling or swelling in the cheeks and face of affected individuals. If you think you have a tooth abscess, visit a dental clinic immediately. If the abscess is not treated, the resulting infection can spread to the sinuses or the brain.

Tooth erosion

Tooth erosion is the breakdown and loss of tooth enamel caused by acid or friction. Acidic foods and drinks cause varying degrees of tooth erosion. Some digestive problems, such as acid reflux from the stomach to the esophagus and mouth, can also cause some degree of erosion. In addition, long-term dry mouth can also cause friction and lead to tooth erosion. Common symptoms of tooth erosion include pain, sensitivity, and discoloration.

Delay in the eruption of permanent teeth or (Tooth impaction)

In this situation, due to some limitations, the teeth are not able to come out of the gum tissue. For example, when the jaw is small or the teeth are very irregular, some of them do not have space to come out of the gums and will still be buried under the gums.

Symptoms of dental disease

Problems and diseases related to tooth tissue can cause various symptoms, of course, not all of these symptoms are obvious. Be sure to talk to your dentist if you experience any of the following symptoms:

  • toothache
  • jaw pain
  • ear pain
  • Sensitivity to heat and cold
  • Pain caused by consuming sweet foods and drinks
  • Chronic bad breath
  • Swelling of the gums
  • Discoloration of the gums
  • Bleeding from the gums
  • Loose teeth
  • Discoloration of tooth tissue
  • Fever

Care of teeth

By taking care of your teeth and following oral hygiene tips, you can prevent many dental conditions and problems. To keep your teeth strong and healthy, take the following tips and recommendations seriously:

  • Brush your teeth twice a day with toothpaste.
  • Floss once a day
  • Replace your toothbrush once every three months
  • Visit the dentist every 6 months for a professional cleaning of your teeth
  • Limit sugary foods and drinks
  • If you smoke, talk to your doctor about ways to quit

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