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Dental components

In order to better understand the structure and anatomy of teeth and the reasons for tooth decay and fracture, it is better to know the components of teeth, which are listed separately below:


It is the hardest substance in the body that forms the transparent layer of the tooth surface. In addition to tooth protection, this part of the tooth has a major effect on its beauty of the tooth. By covering the surface of the crown, the enamel protects it from chewing and abrasive tools. The hardness of this material provides the possibility of partial protection of enamel and teeth from decay. With the destruction of enamel by tooth decay or tooth fracture, the body can’t rebuild it.


Dentin is a living hard material made of many small tubes (microtubules). The main part of the tooth tissue consists of dentin, which is placed under the enamel layer. Ivory is continuously formed during human life. Dental caries often penetrates the tooth enamel and then pull out the dentin. The hardness of ivory is not as hard as enamel, so the speed of decay is faster in it.


The internal living part of the tooth (pulp) includes nerves, blood and lymphatic vessels, and the rest of the tissues that originally form the tooth. The nerve of the tooth along with the blood vessels are located in the central part of the tooth. This mass exists in the form of a channel in the root and the forms of a cavity in the crown. Actions related to tooth nutrition, tooth sensation, as well as the task of making new dentin are the responsibility of this part of the tooth. When this tissue becomes inflamed due to the secretion of microbial toxins resulting from decay or injuries, toothache occurs in this part. If the progress of decay increases and reaches this part, by entering microbes into this part, the possibility of movement of microbes in the blood cycle and transfer of these microbes to other areas is provided.


It covers the root of the tooth and supports the stability of the tooth. The amount of bone around the root causes the teeth to become tight or loose.


The soft tissue covering the jaw bone and around the teeth has different types and functions in different areas. Its shape, consistency, color, and thickness affect dental health.


Perio: stands for periodontal and periodontics and refers to the tissue around the tooth.

* It is derived from the Greek prefix “peri” meaning “surrounding”.


The use of sinus in dentistry has two meanings. One is the cavities filled with air inside the skull, i.e. the maxillary sinus or frontal sinus, and the other; is an infection that drains through a canal or network from inside the tooth to the outside and towards the bone and looks like a boil. These infections can be inside the mouth or through the skin.

Apexia (Apex)

The end of the conical part of the tooth is called the apex.


The sharp edges of the upper and lower front teeth are called incisal.


The vertical overlapping of the upper and lower front teeth when the two jaws are closed is called an overbite. This distance is normally one millimeter.

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